During the 1800s, there was no standard method to understand the weather. Farmers and scientists kept their own weather records, but these records were often informal. John Samuel McCord deplored the “lack of system in times and manner of [meteorological] observations”. Thus, he pursued his interests by keeping detailed meteorological journals, and he first published his findings in the 1835 London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine. McCord, a prominent Montrealer and member of the Meteorological Society of London, contributed a great deal of information and research to the meteorological community and worked tirelessly to establish weather stations throughout Canada.
Howard Borden Newcombe demonstrated the existence of spontaneous mutation in E. coli bacteria, a study that did away with old beliefs.